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The expression of the six genes in joint tissues from humans and mice was investigated revealing that all, except GPR22, showed widespread expression. Intriguingly, further studies revealed that GPR22 harbored an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) tagged by a SNP in high LD with the association signal. This eQTL was detected using an expression database for transformed lymphoblast cell-lines. Whether this lymphoblast eQTL is likely to be relevant to the pathology of OA or is simply a coincidence reflecting the existence of cell-type specific eQTLs was not resolved. The Rotterdam paper reported the presence of GPR22 protein in the cartilage chondrocytes of mice http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adriamycin.html that had an induced form of arthritis but did not report whether GPR22 protein was also detected in human arthritic cartilage. At the 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) congress a group reported FARP1 a search for eQTLs using RNA extracted from the joint tissues of OA patients 7. They identified an eQTL in COG5 that appears to merit further study as potentially contributing to the OA association signal. This study involved a GWAS in Japanese cases and controls, followed by replication in Japanese and Europeans. The discovery component of the study was small, with 899 cases and 3,396?controls, whilst the overall numbers for the discovery and replication combined were moderate, with 1,879 cases and 4,814?controls. In the GWAS and subsequent replication in additional?Japanese cases and controls two SNPs, located within a 340?kb region of the HLA locus on chromosome 6p, were associated with knee OA, with P-values?Obeticholic Acid purchase is becoming a recurring theme and again probably reflects issues of clinical heterogeneity. Panoutsopoulou and colleagues have reported on stage 1 of the arcOGEN study, which involved a GWAS in a UK cohort followed by replication of signals in additional European cohorts, including North Americans of European descent5. The discovery component of the study was reasonably powered, with 3,177 cases and 4,894 controls, whilst the overall numbers for the discovery and replication combined were respectable, with 13,768 cases and 53,286 controls. Although there was no signal exceeding genome-wide significance (P?