Ethernet is the most-widely utilised medium for the Local Area Network (LAN) technology. It provides a physical and data link layer technology for LANs. Ethernet architecture was first developed by Xerox corporation from an earlier specification called Alohanet which was for the Palo Alto Research Centre Aloha network. It was further developed by Xerox corporation in collaboration with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and Intel.
Ethernet uses bus or star topology and the article on Local Area Network (LAN) includes the explanation on different types of topologies including bus and star topology for the assembly. The media used for Ethernet LAN are usually coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. Ethernet is also utilised in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs).
Types of Ethernet
Based on the speed and ease of data transmission, various Ethernet systems can be classified as following: [Important to note that this classification mentions the technologies available in general at present, and as the time progresses new technologies may become available as a result of continuous research and development going on in this field.]
These are the most typically installed Ethernet systems and they provide the transmission speeds up to 10 Megabits per second (Mbps). In this system, the devices are connected to the cable and compete for the access using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol.
2. 100BASE-T (Fast Ethernet):
These Ethernet systems provide the transmission speeds up to 100 Mbps and usually they are utilised for the LAN Backbone systems. These systems support the workstations with 10BASE-T cards.
LAN Backbone Systems:
LANs connect to a line or a set of lines in order to connect to a wide area network (WAN) or even in order to efficiently cover the distances within the LANs such as distances between the buildings, such systems of lines is called LAN Backbone Systems.
In context of the Internet or WANs, local or regional networks connect to a set of lines for long-distance interconnection, and such set of lines or paths is called the Backbone.
3. Gigabit Ethernet:
It is a data transmission technology based on Ethernet frame format which provides the data transmission speed of 1 Billion bits per second (1 Gigabits per second). This type of Ethernet is usually carried on the optical fiber, however, it is possible to use copper media for short distances. Ethernet LANs with 10 and 100 Mbps cards can feed into the LAN Backbone system with Gigabit Ethernet.
4. 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-T):
This data transmission technology based on Ethernet, provides the data transfer speeds up to 10 billion bits per second and it is utilised largely in the local area networks currently. This technology provides reliable technology for the data transfer between the networks through backbone systems.
This technology is likely to interconnect LANs, WANs and Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). This technology utilises full-duplex data transmission, which means that the data can be transferred in both directions on a single carrier simultaneously. Consequently, on multimode fiber this technology can support the distances up to 300 meters and on single mode fiber it can support distances up to 40 kilometers.
Multi Mode Fiber:
In optical fiber technology, multi mode fiber is an optical fiber which is designed to transmit multiple light rays or modes simultaneously, with each of them at a little different reflection angle within the optical fiber nucleus. It is utilised for the signal transmission over short distances.
Single Mode Fiber:
In optical fiber technology, single mode fiber is the optical fiber which is designed to transmit the single ray or mode of light as a carrier. It is utilised for the signal transmission over long distances.
2. OSI Model